Healthy Work Revisited: Does Reducing Time Strain Promote Women’s and Men’s Well-Being?
Phyllis Moen, University of Minnesota
Erin Kelly, University of Minnesota
Jack Lam, University of Minnesota
We build on Karasek and Theorell (1990), theorizing the increasing importance of the psychosocial effects of time strain (time demands and time control) as well as job strain. Using two Waves of survey data from 659 employees at a white-collar workplace before and after implementation of an organizational flexibility innovation, we find employees experience changes in both job and time strain. The flexibility initiative predicts changes in time demands and time control net of any effects of changes in job demands or job control. In turn, changes in time strain (schedule control, time adequacy, and overcommitment) that were prompted by the flexibility initiative have positive effects on a number of health and well-being outcomes, including work-family spillover, self-reported health, energy, psychological well-being, and psychological distress. These effects differ for women and men. This study demonstrates how a deliberate change within the context of the workplace affects employee health and well-being.