Reducing and Reversing Gender Inequalities in LA
José Eustáquio Diniz Alves, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)
Suzana M. Cavenaghi, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)
George Martine, Independent Consultant
The Latin America and the Caribbean region has been experiencing a process of economic and social changes that have enabled the reduction of the gender gap in some areas and even reversed it in others. The region has advanced in the epidemiological transition, as everywhere, but external causes of death have affected more males in a very disproportional way compared to women, resulting in a growing surplus of women, especially in urban areas. Demographic and urban transitions have enabled women to live longer and to have fewer children, surpassing men in education and reducing the gender gap in the labor market, although there remain various forms of occupational segregation and wage discrimination. The recent resumption of economic growth has enabled some reduction of poverty rates and large income inequality. Social achievements in the region have reflected in higher levels of female participation in decision-making arenas, although still far from parity.